Pentapeptides containing the consensus Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Xaa sequence, are the smallest of the molecules with pain killing or opiate activity.
Endogenous endorphins that bind to the body’s opioid receptors.
Two forms of enkephalin, one containing leucine (“leu”), and the other containing methionine (“met”).
Met-enkephalin is Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met.
Leu-enkephalin has Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu.
The met-enkephalin peptide sequence is coded for by both the enkephalin gene and the endorphin gene.
The leu-enkephalin peptide sequence is coded for by both the enkephalin gene and the dynorphin gene.
The receptors are the opioid receptors.
Found in the thalamus of the brain and in some parts of the spinal cord that transmit pain impulses.
Inhibit painful sensations by reacting with specific receptor sites on the sensory nerve endings.
Nerve endings of the central nervous system (CNS) and the adrenal medulla release these naturally occurring morphine-like substances.
Bind to opiate receptors and release controlled levels of pain.
Leu-enkephalin is an endogenous agonist for the receptors that are stimulated by opiate alkaloids.
Has multiple effects on the CNS, including the neuroendocrine hypothalamus,a nd controls gonadal function.
Met-enkephalin is involved in modulating pain perception, regulation of memory and emotional conditions, food and liquid consumption and regulation of immunological system.
Met-enkephalin affects digestive system motility, gastric as well as in pancreatic secretion and metabolism of carbohydrates.