It is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue.

The dermis contains proteins, including collagen, elastin, and other important fibers, that affect the skin’s strength and elasticity and are responsible for skin’s smooth, youthful appearance. 

It cushions the body from stress and strain.

It does not function as a barrier like the epidermis, instead it provides strength as it is composed mainly of collagen and extracellular matrix proteins.

Thickness varies from .03 mm on the eyelid to approximately 4 mm on the back.

The dermis provides tensile strength and elasticity to the skin through an extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibrils, microfibrils, and elastic fibers, embedded in proteoglycans.

Contains nerve endings that provide the sense of touch and heat, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.

The blood vessels in the dermis provide nutrition and waste removal from the dermis and epidermis.

The dermis contains skin adnexa which include: hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands that are lined with keratinocytes.

It also contains a plexus of nerves and blood vessels coursing through the dermis.

The subcutaneous tissue of the skin, is made up of primarily fat and provides padding for underlying tissues.

Connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is divided into two areas. a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region.

The papillary region has loose areolar connective tissue, with fingerlike projections that extend toward the epidermis and contain either terminal networks of blood capillaries or tactile Meissner’s corpuscles.

The stratum reticular lies under the papillary region and is usually thicker and is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.

The reticular stratum has dense concentration of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers which give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity.

The reticular region has hair roots, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels.

In first-degree burns the burn does not penetrate the epidermis leaving the barrier intact.

First-degree burns result in dry and red skin.

First- degree burns require minimal treatment such as analgesic and moisturizer, or no therapy at all.

A partial thickness burn, is a second-degree burn, that penetrates in to but not through the dermis.

First-degree burns heal rapidly.

In a second-degree burn the epidermal barrier is lost and a blister forms, or it may weep interstitial fluid.

In a second-degree burn the dermis plexus of blood vessels and nerves remain intact, and the wound will blanch with pressure and pain is severe.

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