Daunorubicin, also known as daunomycin, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat neoplastic disease.

An anthracycline medication.

It works in part by blocking the function of topoisomerase II.

It interacts with DNA by intercalation and inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis.

It inhibits the progression of the enzyme topoisomerase II, which relaxes supercoils in DNA for transcription.

It stabilizes the topoisomerase II complex after it has broken the DNA chain for replication, preventing the DNA double helix from being resealed and thereby stopping the process of replication.

It is used for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), neuroblastoma, and Kaposi’s sarcoma.

It is used by intravenous injection.

A liposomal formulation known as liposomal daunorubicin also exists.

Pregnancy category D (U.S.)

Causes severe necrosis if administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

Metabolism by Liver.

Elimination half-life 26.7 hours.

Excretion Biliary and urinary

Common side effects: hair loss, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, and mucositis.

Severe side effects include heart disease and tissue death at the site of injection.

Use in pregnancy may harm the fetus.

It is usually utilized in combination with other agents.

On binding to DNA, it intercalates, with its daunosamine residue.

It has the highest preference for two adjacent G/C base pairs.

It induces conformational disturbances of adjacent and second-neighbor base pairs.

It could produce fatal cardiac toxicity.

Administered in a rapid intravenous infusion.

Extravasation may cause extensive tissue necrosis.

If administered intrathecally, it will cause extensive damage to the nervous system and may lead to death.

Has been used intravitreally for the purposes of preventing proliferative vitreoretinopathy, a common complication following retinal detachment surgery.

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