Cytoplasmic organelles

Organelles are functional units of a cell.

Most smaller organelles must be viewed with an electron microscope.

Larger organelles can be identified by staining techniques.

Specialized stains identify lipids, glycogen, iron, enzymes, and nucleic acids.

Centrioles are two central spots inside of the centrosomes.

Centrioles are paired cylindrical structures with the long axes are always oriented to right angles to each other .

Each centriole consists of nine groups of microtubules.

Centrioles divide and move to opposite ends of the cell during cell division.

Centrioles serve as points of insertion of the spindle fibers during cell division.

Endoplasmic reticulum a lacelike network composed of membranes enclosing interconnecting cisterns.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes and is associated with protein production.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of production of lipids and site of lipolysis.

Golgi apparatus a hooked shaped organelle with a stack of sacs next to the nucleus, which concentrates secretions of granules, and segregating carbohydrates.

Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes.

Microbodies are small intracytoplasmic organelles that contain enzymes, especially oxidases, that produce hydrogen peroxidases.

Microfilaments are solid structures consisting mainly of the proteins actin and myosin.

Microfilaments are the smallest components of the cytoskeleton.

Microfilaments are responsible for phagocytosis and other amoeboid movements of the cell.

Microtubules are hollow fibers of polymermized proteins subunits, known as tubulin.

Microtubule formation occurs through assembly of filaments, and and is associated with cell shape and intracellular movement of organelles.

The mitotic spindle is composed of microtubules.

Mitochondria are rod shaped organelles with an outer smooth membrane and an inner folded membrane that carry out energy producing reactions of the cell.

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