Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)


Cyclic adenosine monophosphate: cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate.



It is a second messenger important in many biological processes. 



cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction.



Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase.



Adenylate cyclase is located on the inner side of the plasma membrane and anchored at various locations in the interior of the cell.



Adenylate cyclase is activated by a signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G (Gs)-protein-coupled receptors. 



Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein-coupled receptors. 



Liver adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline.



cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.



cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction.



cAMP transfers into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the plasma membrane. 



It is also involved in the activation of protein kinases. 



cAMP binds to and regulates the function of ion channels.



cAMP is associated with kinase function in several biochemical processes, including the regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism.



In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP activates protein kinase A.



Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins.



The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues of protein substrates. 



Cyclic AMP is a second messenger and plays vital role in cell signalling, and is  been implicated in various disorders: 


linked to the growth of some cancers.



cAMP affects the function of higher-order thinking in the prefrontal cortex.



cAMP regulates ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN). 



When HCN is activated the channels open, closing the brain cell to communication and thus interfering with the function of the prefrontal cortex. 



cAMP is a neuropeptide involved in activation of trigeminocervical system, that leads to neurogenic inflammation and causing migraine.




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