A complication of treatment with antibiotics.

Generally caused by overgrowth of toxin producing Clostridium difficile in the colon.

Antibiotic associated hemorrhagic colitis is a distinct form of disease in which C. difficile is absent and which spontaneously clears with the cessation of antibiotic therapy.

Cause of antibiotic induced hemorrhagic colitis is unknown.

Mechanisms of etiology include allergy, mucosal ischemic changes and infection with Klebsiella oxytoca.

Klebsiella oxytoca found in hemorrhagic colitis, but also found in stools of normal individuals and can produce a cytotoxin capable of inducing cell death.

Observed mainly in young individuals and otherwise healthy outpatients after treatment with penicillin agents.

Involves mainly the right or transverse colon.

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