Viral upper respiratory illness most commonly caused by rhinoviruses, but also can be caused by respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza and influenza viruses.

Common cold most common illness in humans.

Syndrome of runny and stuffed nose, sneezing, sore throat and cough.

Adults average 2 to 3 colds per year.

Children have 6 to 10 colds per year.

Estimated 500 million colds per year occur in the US.

Disease causing viruses enter individuals nasal passages much more frequently than they cause illness.

In many instances, airway antiviral defense responses effectively clear local virus before it causes symptoms.

The lower temperatures in the nasal passages may suppress innate antiviral defenses in airway epithelial cells.

The average person will spend about five years suffering from the common cold.

Common cold most common illness in humans.

Syndrome of runny and stuffed nose, sneezing, sore throat and cough.

Adults average 2 to 3 colds per year.

Children have 6 to 10 colds per year.

Children are the most vulnerable, and incidence decreases until adulthood.

Before the age of 5 years children average 5-6 episodes per year.

Adults have 2 episodes per year in men and 3 episodes per year in women.

Elderly experience only 1 episode per year.

Contagious, especially during the early days of the illness.

Spread through the air and contaminated surfaces.

Self-limited and usually mild.

No treatment proven to shorten the duration of illness.

Hand cleaning and avoiding prolonged contact with someone with a cold may help prevent spread of infection.

In temperate climates tend to occur in cold weather months, while in tropics the tendency is to occur during the rainy season.

In the U.S. rates rise in late summer when young children return to school.

Children may have six to twelve colds a year.

The incidence of colds is higher in the autumn and winter, with most infections occurring between September to April.

The seasonality may be due to the start of the school year.and to people spending more time indoors and in proximity with each other increasing the chance of transmission of the virus.

Seasonal variation related to greater amount of time spent indoors.

600 million cases per year in the U.S.

Economic costs 40 billion dollars per year and the 7th most costly disease in the U.S.

Causes exacerbations of asthma and COPD.

Rhinoviruses are the dominant group of viruses causing the common cold.

There are about 100 types of rhino viruses and they are responsible for about half of all colds in adults and a similar proportion in children.

Rhinoviruses grow best a 33 degrees C, the usual temperature of the nasal passages, and explains why such viruses do not grow in the lungs or other internal organs as body temperature of 37 degrees C is too warm for their growth.

There are approximately 100 species in the rhinovirus genus, which explains the inability to become fully immune to colds.

Rhinovirus has a marked peak in incidence in September and a smaller peak in spring.

Vaccine development is difficult because of the significant number of viruses that can cause colds.

Rhinoviruses are small and have a compact genome with a single strand of RNA.

Rhinoviruses have a capsid that allows them to bind to host cell membranes and initiate infection.

Coronavirus account for approximately 105 of colds.

Influenza viruses account for approximately 5-10% of colds.

Parainfluenza virus accounts for approximately 4% of colds.

Respiratory syncytial virus accounts for approximately 2-5% of colds.

Adenoviruses account for about 1% of colds.

Unknown viruses account for approximately 30% of colds.

Management associated with overuse of antibiotics and the development of resistant bacterial organisms.

Zinc sulfate nasal spray or zinc lozenges have no effect on the duration of the common cold.

Zinc sulfate nasal spray may be associated with a mild and transient reduction in the severity of nasal symptoms.

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