Cognitive behavioral therapy

Assumes emotions, thoughts, and behaviors all influence each other.

CBT’s tenet that all humans’ core beliefs can be summed up in three categories: self, others, future.

A psychosocial intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice for treating mental disorders.

It focuses on identifying and reframing negative, dysfunctional thoughts while I increasing participation and pleasurable and social activities.

Guided by empirical research.

Focuses on the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems and changing unhelpful patterns in cognitions, that is thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes, behaviors, and emotional regulation.

Originally designed to treat depression, and is now used for a number of mental health conditions.

Based on a combination of the basic principles from behavioral and cognitive psychology.

A problem-focused and action-oriented process used to treat specific problems related to a diagnosed mental disorder and the therapist’s role is to assist the client in finding and practicing effective strategies to address the identified goals and decrease symptoms of the disorder.

Based on the belief that thought distortions and maladaptive behaviors play a role in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders,

Symptoms and associated distress can be reduced by teaching new information-processing skills and coping mechanisms.

When compared to psychotropic medications, review studies have found CBT-alone to be as effective for treating depression and anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), tics, substance abuse, eating disorders, and borderline personality disorder, and it is often recommended in combination with medications for treating other conditions, such as severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depression, opioid addiction, bipolar, and psychotic disorders

In addition, CBT is recommended as the first line of treatment for the majority of psychological disorders in children and adolescents, including aggression and conduct disorder.

CBT assumes that changing maladaptive thinking leads to change in behavior and affect.

Emphasizes changes in one’s relationship to maladaptive thinking rather than changes in thinking itself.

The goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is not to diagnose a person with a particular disease, but to look at the person as a whole and decide what needs to be fixed.

The basic steps in a cognitive-behavioral assessment include:

Identify critical behaviors.

Determine whether critical behaviors are excesses or deficits.

Evaluate critical behaviors for frequency, duration, or intensity.

If excess, attempt to decrease frequency, duration, or intensity of behaviors; if deficits, attempt to increase behaviors.

After identifying the behaviors that need changing, whether they be in excess or deficit, and treatment has occurred, the psychologist must identify whether or not the intervention succeeded.

If the goal was to decrease the behavior, then there should be a decrease relative to the baseline.

If the critical behavior remains at or above the baseline, then the intervention has failed.

Therapists use CBT techniques to help individuals challenge their patterns and beliefs and replace “errors in thinking such as overgeneralizing, magnifying negatives, minimizing positives and catastrophizing” with “more realistic and effective thoughts, thus decreasing emotional distress and self-defeating behavior.”

These errors in thinking are known as cognitive distortions.

Cognitive distortions can be either a pseudo-discrimination belief or an over-generalization of something.

CBT techniques may also be used to help individuals take a more open, mindful, and aware posture toward cognitive distortions so as to diminish their impact.

Mainstream CBT helps individuals replace “maladaptive… coping skills, cognitions, emotions and behaviors with more adaptive ones”, by challenging an individual’s way of thinking and the way that they react to certain habits or behaviors.

There is controversy about the degree to which these traditional cognitive elements account for the effects seen with CBT over and above the earlier behavioral elements such as exposure and skills training.

Modern forms of CBT include a variety of diverse but related techniques such as exposure therapy, stress inoculation, cognitive processing therapy, cognitive therapy, relaxation training, dialectical behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy.

Some practitioners promote a form of mindful cognitive therapy which includes a greater emphasis on self-awareness as part of the therapeutic process.

CBT has six phases:

Assessment or psychological assessment;


Skills acquisition;

Skills consolidation and application training;

Generalization and maintenance;

Post-treatment assessment follow-up.

Reconceptualization phase makes up much of the cognitive portion of CBT.

May refer to different interventions, including self-instructions, relaxation and/or biofeedback, development of adaptive coping strategies such as minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts or changing maladaptive beliefs and goals.

Can be used in both individual and group settings.

Some aspects are cognitively oriented while others are more behaviorally oriented, while imaginal exposure therapy combines both approaches.

Has effectiveness in the treatment plans for anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, chronic low back pain, personality disorders, psychosis, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, in the adjustment, depression, and anxiety associated with fibromyalgia, sleep disorders, and with post-spinal cord injuries.

In children or adolescents, is an effective part of treatment for anxiety disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, depression and suicidality, eating disorders and obesity, obsessive–compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, tic disorders, trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders.

Evidence suggests that the addition of hypnotherapy as an adjunct to CBT improves treatment efficacy for a variety of clinical issues including: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, hypochondriasis, coping with multiple sclerosis, sleep disturbances, dysmenorrhea, and bipolar disorder.

Can ease symptoms of anxiety and depression in Alzheimer’s disease.

Effective in reducing social anxiety in adults who stutter, but not in reducing stuttering frequency.

Might help with psychological outcomes and pain management in breast cancer.

Suggested to be superior in the long-term to benzodiazepines and the nonbenzodiazepines in the treatment and management of insomnia.

Moderately effective for treating chronic fatigue syndrome.

Recommended in the treatment plans for a number of mental health difficulties, including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, clinical depression, and anxiety disorders.

A basic concept is in vivo exposure and direct confrontation of feared objects, activities, or situations by a patient.

Exposure to the harmful stimulus can be unlearned, referred to as extinction and habituation.

Glucocorticoids may possibly lead to a more successful extinction learning during exposure therapy, so that a combination of glucocorticoids and exposure therapy may be a better improved treatment for treating patients with anxiety disorders.

Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown as an effective treatment for clinical depression.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy have the best-documented efficacy for treatment of major depressive disorder.

In long-term psychoses, CBT complements medication, and is adapted to meet individual needs.

CBT Interventions can explore reality testing, changing delusions and hallucinations, examining factors which precipitate relapse, and managing relapses.

Several meta-analyses suggested that CBT is effective in schizophrenia, and there is limited evidence of effectiveness for bipolar disorder and severe depression.

CBT can also be used to reduce prejudice towards others.

CBT with people at risk significantly reduces the number of episodes of generalized anxiety disorder and other anxiety symptoms, and also given significant improvements in explanatory style, hopelessness, and dysfunctional attitudes, and reduces social anxiety prevalence.

People who have received CBT have a greater self recognition and acknowledgement of existing symptoms of depression and negative thinking styles.

Also used for gambling addiction.

The number of people who gamble is 1–3% around the world.

Effective cognitive behavioral therapy is dependent on an alliance between the healthcare practitioner and the person seeking assistance., as the patient is very involved in CBT.

Computerized CBT IS cost-effective and often cheaper than usual care,

Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy (CEBT) is a form of CBT for individuals with eating disorders, anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger problems.

Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy combines aspects of CBT and behavioral therapy.

The research conducted for CBT has been a topic of sustained controversy.

While some researchers write that CBT is more effective than other treatments, many other researchers and practitioners have questioned the validity of such claims.

CBT studies indicate high drop-out rates compared to other treatments.

A short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that takes a practical approach to problem-solving.

The goal is to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people’s difficulties, and so change the way they feel.

Works by changing people’s attitudes and their behavior by focusing on the thoughts, images, beliefs and attitudes that are held and how such processes relates to behavior, as a way of dealing with emotional problems.

CBT tends to be short, taking five to ten months for most emotional problems.

Emotion-filled thoughts that develop in the mind, if negative in are neither realistic nor helpful, but are essential to the understanding and overcoming a patient’s difficulties.

Therefore this therapy is referred to as cognitive therapy because of the importance it places on thinking.

Now known as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) because the therapy employs behavioral techniques as well.

Process based on a model or theory that it’s not events themselves that upset us, but the meanings we give them.

Negative thinking can block individuals from seeing or doing things that do not fit what we believe is true.

Usually a one-to-one therapy, but is well suited to working in groups, or families.

Patients who describe having particular problems are often the most suitable for CBT.

Effective therapy for the following problems:

anger management

anxiety and panic attacks

child and adolescent problems

chronic fatigue syndrome

chronic pain


drug or alcohol problems

eating problems

general health problems

habits, such as facial tics

mood swings

obsessive-compulsive disorder


post-traumatic stress disorder

sexual and relationship problems

sleep problems

CBT can substantially reduce the symptoms of many emotional disorders, and is as good as drug therapies at treating depression and anxiety disorders.

And the benefits of CBT may last longer than medication use.

CBT can work by teaching coping skills.

Attempts to teach people skills for dealing with their problems.

Provides a strategy for coping can lead to more lasting changes to basic attitudes and ways of behaving.

CBT may teach a new approach to dealing with problems that have their basis in an emotional disturbance.

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