See ((Caffeine))

Does not increase the risk of coronary artery disease.

Almost 50% of Americans drink coffee, with a per capita intake of 1.7 cups per day.

85% of adults consume caffeine daily, and an average caffeine intake is 135 mg per day, equivalent to about 1 1/2 standard cups of coffee.

On average, American’s drink 3 cups of coffee every day.

Drinking 1-3 cups of coffee daily reduces the risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or certain types of cancer, and may even increase lifespan. 


Coffee consumption reduces rates of cardiovascular death.


There is a strong inverse association between caffeinated coffee intake and oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality.


Coffee has a positive positive effect in terms of reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.  

Consumption of caffeinated coffee may play a role in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease in women.

Caffeine is methylxanthine.

Caffeine absorption is nearly complete within 45 minutes after ingestion, with caffeine blood levels peaking after 15 minutes-two hours.

A consistent intake of >4 cups of caffeinated coffee associated with a 25% reduced risk of cholecystectomy.

Consumption of filtered coffee associated with an increase in serum homocysteine levels.

On average, over 1000 chemical constituents are present in coffee, and many of them are biologically active. 

Coffee contains oily compounds known as diterpenes.

These diterpenes affect the body’s ability to metabolize and regulate cholesterol.


The two main diterpenes in coffee are cafestol and kahweol.  


Diterpene cafestol present in unfiltered coffee increases serum cholesterol levels.


Cafestol is felt to be the single most potent dietary cholesterol elevating compound.  


Cafestol is a diterpenoid molecule present in coffee beans.

It may be responsible for proposed biological and pharmacological effects of coffee.


Coffee contains hundreds of biologically active phytochemicals, including polyphenols and lignans, the  alkaloid trigonelline,melanoiins, and  modest amounts of magnesium, potassium, vitamin B 1,


These coffee compounds may reduce oxidative stress, improve gut microbiome, modulate glucose and fat metabolism.


Coffee is capable of elevating serum cholesterol levels in humans.


The cholesterol raising effects  can be avoided by filtering the brew.  


Unfiltered coffee consumption can raise LDL cholesterol levels as much as 8% .  

Switching from pot-boiled to filtered coffee lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

Filtered coffee has no effect on cholesterol levels.


In a world first genetic study, researchers from the Australian Centre for Precision Health at the University of South Australia found that that long-term, heavy coffee consumption of six or more cups a day  can increase the amount of lipids in blood to significantly heighten the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).


This  correlation is both positive and dose-dependent.


Cafestol is a diterpenoid molecule present in coffee beans.


It may be responsible for proposed biological and pharmacological effects of coffee.


Cafestol is mainly present in unfiltered brews, such as French press, Turkish and Greek coffees, but it’s also in espressos, which is the base for most barista-made coffees, including lattes and cappuccinos.


The  coffee-lipid association is dose-dependent.


The study used data from 362,571 UK Biobank participants, aged 37-73 years.

It is wise to choose filtered coffee when possible.

Contains caffeine, chlorogenic acid and magnesium and other chemicals.

Coffee is thought to be beneficial because of its high levels of antioxidants found in the beans. 


Antioxidants in coffee are known as polyphenols.


During brewing of coffee polyphenols are released from the ground beans into the water.  


Hot water releases more antioxidants than cold. 

Inverse relationship between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.

In a randomized trial, the consumption of caffeinated coffee did not result in significantly more daily premature atrial contractions than the avoidance of caffeine (Marcus GM).

Observational studies suggest coffee drinkers have a lower risk of atrial fibrillation than non-drinkers: attributed to the anti-inflammatory, or anti-vagal effects of coffee.

Some reports that there is a positive relationship between coffee and arrhythmias, showing that the larger the daily consumption of coffee, the greater the likelihood of premature ventricular contractions as shown on a two minute EKG.

Coffee  drinkers have consistently had reduced mortality in prospective cohort studies: it may enhance physical performance, and may lead to more physical activity, one of the determinant of overall health and longevity.

In a trial that randomly assigned coffee consumption, a median of 1000 more steps per day per participant was taken, and an additional 1000 steps per day is associated with a 6 to 15% reduction in mortality (Marcus GM).

Coffee beans (coffee grounds) contain the 11S globulin responsible for coffee’s aroma and flavor.

Coffee consumption increases plasma levels of protein sex hormone-binding globulin, which controls the biological activity by sex hormones.

Daily coffee intake has a beneficial effect in the development of incident chronic kidney disease.

coffee consumption may be associated with decreased incidence of kidney stones.

At the highest levels of coffee consumption associated with one third the risk of diabetes compared with those with the lowest consumption (van Dam RM).

In a meta- analysis of 18 studies with 457,922 participants found an inverse log-linear relationship between coffee consumption and subsequent risk of diabetes, such that every additional cup of coffee in a day was associated with a 7% reduction in the excess risk of diabetes relative risk after adjustment for confounders (Huxley R).

An inverse association exists between consumption of decaffeinated coffee and tea with risk of incident diabetes mellitus (Huxley R).

People who drink two to three cups of filtered coffee a day had a 60% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than people who drank less than one cup of filtered coffee a day. 


Consumption of unfiltered coffee had no effect on the diabetes risk.

Individuals consuming more than 3 to 4 cups of decaffeinated coffee have a one third lower risk of developing diabetes than non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee.

The consumption of decaffeinated coffee was associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of diabetes in individuals age 60 or younger, but but the association was reversed with a 40% increase in risk in older individuals (Greenberg JA).

A randomized trial of four weeks duration of high coffee consumption increased fasting insulin levels but had no effect on fasting glucose concentration (van Dam RM).

Caffeine increases insulin sensitivity of tissues and therefore has anti-hyperinsulin effects.
Higher coffee intake is associated with improve survival  in patients  which stage III colorectal cancer.
Coffee consumption may be associated with reduce risk of disease progression and death in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer.

Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of multiple health outcomes including a reduction in adiposity. 


DXA is a means to assess body fat and distribution.


Higher coffee consumption is associated with lower total body fat percentage and trunk body fat percentage in a dose-response manner among women. 


Although this dose–response relation was nonsignificant among men: 


Men aged 20–44 y who drink 2–3 cups/d  have 1.3% less total fat and 1.8% less trunk fat than those who did not consume coffee. 

Inverse association between coffee drinking and depression and suicide.

Can lower the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver for alcohol drinkers by 22%.

May help to control movement disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Drinking coffee in moderation may protect against heart failure.

Drinking coffee reduces the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

In a longitudinal study of 50,739 US women with a mean age of 63 years free of depression and followed, the depression risk decreased with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption (Lucas M et al).

A University of South Australia study suggests drinking six or more cups of coffee a day can increase your risk of heart disease by up to 22% (2019).

Six 8-ounce cups contains 75 milligrams (mg) of caffeine.

Caffeine-metabolizing gene (CYP1A2) affected people’s ability to process caffeine and their risk for heart disease.

Carriers of a gene variation were able to metabolize caffeine four times faster than others.

Coffee is the most popular beverage worldwide, with an estimated 3 billion cups consumed every day.

One cup contains approximately 75 mg of caffeine.

A double espresso is roughly equivalent to a normal coffee.

A grand iced latte contains up to 150 mg of caffeine.

A cup of coffee contains over 1,000 chemical compounds.

Drinking coffee on a regular basis appears to enhance concentration and improve motor control and alertness by inducing functional and connectivity changes in the brain.



fMRI found that connectivity in the somatosensory and limbic resting states was reduced in regular coffee drinkers (CDs) in comparison with non–coffee drinkers (NCDs), suggesting an association between coffee drinking and improved motor control and alertness. 



Dynamic activity in several cerebellar and subcortical areas of the brain was increased among CDs, consistent with an improved ability to focus.



Similar structural and connectivity changes were seen in the brains of NCDs after they had consumed a cup of coffee.



The regular intake of coffee, by reducing the connectivity of particular brain networks at risk, may be of relevance for attention/alertness, with possible implications in learning and memory, and also for motor control.



One reply on “Coffee”

[…] See ((Coffee)) Coffee and tea are among the most popular beverages in the world and contain significant amounts of caffeine. Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive agent. Caffeine is consumed regularly by over 80% of the US population. The average daily caffeine intake in the US is about 186-226 mg/D, well below the very conservative limit of 400 mg per day cited in safety reviews. Many plants contain caffeine in their seeds, fruits, and leaves: Cacao beans yerba matte leaves, and guarana berries. 85% of adults consume caffeine daily, and an average caffeine intake is 135 mg per day, equivalent to about 1 1/2 standard cups of coffee. Coffee is the predominant source of caffeine ingested by adults, whereas soft drinks and tea and more important sources of caffeine ingested by adolescents. […]

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