A semisynthetic derivative of lincomycin, a natural antibiotic produced by the actinobacterium Streptomyces lincolnensis.

Has a bacteriostatic effect.

A bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor by inhibiting ribosomal translocation.

Similar biologic activity to macrolides.

Used to treat infections with anaerobic bacteria but can also be used to treat some protozoal diseases, such as malaria.

A common topical treatment for acne and can be useful against some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections.

Most severe common adverse effect of clindamycin is Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

Used primarily to treat anaerobic infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, including dental infections, and infections of the respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, and peritonitis.

In patients with hypersensitivity to penicillins, clindamycin may be used to treat infections caused by susceptible aerobic bacteria, as well.

It is also used to treat bone and joint infections, particularly those caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Topical application of clindamycin phosphate can be used to treat mild to moderate acne.

Available as oral, topical, IV, intravaginal agents.

Has 90% oral bioavailablity.

Metabolism by hepatic breakdown with biliary and renal excretion.

Half-life 2–3 hours

Effective against infections involving the following types of organisms: aerobic Gram-positive cocci, including some members of the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, but not enterococci, anaerobic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, including some Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella.

Most aerobic Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Legionella, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella are resistant to clindamycin, as are the facultative anaerobic Enterobacteriaceae.

For Capnocytophaga canimorsus, it is a first-line drug of choice.

MRSA is becoming increasingly resistant.

Used in cases of suspected toxic shock syndrome, often in combination with a bactericidal agent such as vancomycin.

An inhibitor of toxin synthesis.

Reduces the production of exotoxins by staphylococci.

It may also induce changes in the surface structure of bacteria that make them more sensitive to immune system via opsonization and phagocytosis.

Decreases the risk of premature births in women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis during early pregnancy to about a third of the risk of untreated women.

With chloroquine or quinine, effective in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

In combination with quinine is the standard treatment for babesiosis.

Used to treat toxoplasmosis and, in combination with primaquine, is effective in treating mild to moderate Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Common adverse drug reactions include: diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or cramps, rash, and/or itch.

High doses may cause a metallic taste, and topical application may cause contact dermatitis.[

Diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea and severe heartburn associated with laying down.

In less than 0.1% of patients associated with anaphylaxis, blood dyscrasias, polyarthritis, jaundice, raised liver enzyme levels, and/or hepatotoxicity.

May prolong the effects of neuromuscular-blocking drugs.

Usual adult dose for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis is 600 mg orally 1 hour prior to the procedure prior to dental, oral, upper respiratory tract and esophageal procedures in at-risk, penicillin-allergic patients.

Usual adult sose for bacterial vaginosis is 300 mg orally twice daily.

Usual adult dose for diverticulitis is 450 mg orally every 6 hours and should be given in conjunction with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and for more acutely ill patients in the inpatient setting clindamycin 450 to 900 mg intravenously every 8 hours and may be administered in conjunction with other agents.

For intraabdominal infections it is always used with one or more additional drugs.

Usual adult dose for osteomyelitis is 450 to 900 mg IV every 8 hours.

Usual adult dose for pelvic inflammatory disease is 900 mg IV every 8 hours and an appropriate oral dosage is 450 mg orally every 6 hours.

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