Cleft chin

The terms cleft chin, chin cleft, dimple chin, or chin dimple refer to a dimple on the chin. 

A cleft chin is a Y-shaped fissure on the chin with an underlying bony peculiarity.

The chin fissure follows the fissure in the lower jaw bone that result from the incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the jaw bone, or muscle, during the embryonal and fetal development. 

A cleft chin can also develop during the later mandibular symphysis, due to growth of the mental protuberance during puberty, or as a result of acromegaly. 

A cleft chin is an inherited trait, with variable penetrance with environmental factors or a modifier gene possibly affecting the phenotypical expression of the actual genotype. 

There is a possible genetic cause for cleft chins, a genetic marker called rs11684042 located in chromosome 2.

It is characterized by a small, visible split or groove that gives the appearance of a cleft.

It is caused by a dominant gene, which means that it only takes one parent to pass on the gene for a cleft chin to be present in their child. 

Not everyone with a cleft-chinned parent will have a cleft chin themselves, as the expression of this trait can vary.

The presence of a cleft chin is primarily due to differences in the attachment of the mentalis muscle.

The mentalis muscle is responsible for controlling the movement of the lower lip and chin, and with a cleft chin, the mentalis muscle attaches differently, with a characteristic groove or indentation.

Cleft chins varies among different populations, being more common in individuals with European ancestry, however, it can be found in people from any ethnic background.

Cleft chins are common among people originating from Europe, the Middle East and South Asia.

In some populations, cleft chins are more common in males, while in others, they may be equally prevalent in males and females.

A cleft chin is considered to be a cosmetic feature that some individuals find to be aesthetically pleasing and attractive.

Individuals dissatisfied with the appearance of their cleft chin,a surgical procedures, such as genioplasty, may be an option. 

Genioplasty involves reshaping the chin bone to create a smoother contour.

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