Childhood vaccinations

In the  US, in  the first 11 months of the birth children are Vaccinated against nine vaccine preventable diseases.

The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends: 


Recommendations call for all infants to be immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, and, pertussis.

The recommendations call for a three dose priming series given at two, four, and six months of age. 
Children should receive booster doses at 12 to 15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, preceding kindergarten attendance.
All the children, adolescents, and adults demonstrate too much reactivity to the doses used in infants and children younger than seven years and a vaccine is specially designed for adolescents and adults uses reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid and protussis antigens-the Tdap vaccine.


Infants beginning at birth receive several vaccines directed against a variety of infectious diseases that currently pose threats of morbidity and mortality to infants and those around them, including the 3-dose hepatitis B (HepB) series. 


The first dose is due at birth. 


This series protects against maternal-infant transmission of the HepB virus and against exposure the rest of the infant’s life. 

At age 2 months infants are to receive not only their second dose of HepB vaccine but also vaccines directed against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, pneumococcus, rotavirus, poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

Universal vaccination with the trivalent, inactivated injected form of polio vaccine of all infants is recommended, with three doses of vaccine given a two, four, and 12 – 15 months of age, and a booster at four-six years of age.

Haemophilus Influenzae type B

As a result of routine immunization of infants and preschool age children infection with these bacteria -Haemophilus B is nearing elimination.

Infection with these bacterial organisms can result in meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, septic arthritis, and purulent pericarditis.

Before initiation of vaccinations approximately 20,000 infants and young children developed serious invasive infections with this organism.

These infections often resulted in lifelong disabilities.

Vaccination calls for two or three priming doses at two and four months and six months depending upon the vaccine, and a single booster at 12-15 months.

Combinations of Haemophilus B vaccine with diphtheria/tetanus/ACellular pertussis (DTaP)  has reducedthe number of injections needed.

At 4 months, infants are to repeat those vaccines except for the HepB vaccine. 


At age 6 months infants are to finish the HepB series and receive the third doses of the other vaccines received at 2 and 4 months except for the rotavirus vaccine, depending on the brand used. 



Also, starting at 6 months, depending on the time of year, infants are to begin a 2-dose series against influenza separated by 28 days. 


All infants should undergo immunization against hepatitis B, starting the series on the day of birth. 


Hepatitis B initiation of a three dose vaccine series at birth and completing the series in six months substantially minimizes the risk that an infant will require the infection from the mother.


Using the three dose series with passive immunity in the form of hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduces the risk for infants whose mothers demonstrate infection through prenatal screening and for those with birth weight is less than 2000 g born to mothers who were not screened during pregnancy.


influenza vaccine is recommended to infants before the first birthday and is the inactivated  vaccine form,

It starts at six months or older.

Infants, as first line recipients of the vaccine, require 2 doses of the influenza vaccine at least 28 days apart administered as an intramuscular injection.

Recommending RSV vaccine to protect infants under eight months and some older babies at increased risk of severe illness from respiratory syncytial virus.










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