Brachial cuff pressures are not equivalent to central pressures, that is, the pressure as experienced by the heart, brain, and kidneys.
The sphygmomanometer readings reflect not only the blood pressure per se, but propagation of waveforms in arteries depending on their size and location and the character of those waves, their reflection back, and variables related to the degree of arterial distensibility or stiffness.
Central blood pressure can be measured by applanation technique, which is the placing a noninvasive, innocuous probe over the radial artery coupled with quantifying and characterizing wave behaviors as they move from one vessel to another.
Analysis of radial artery systolic-diastolic waveforms by noninvasive transducers provides an assessment of blood pressure backwards where it counts―in the vessels supplying the brain, heart, and kidneys.
Atenolol-induces declines in cuff pressures with simultaneous rises in central pressures during treatment.
In cognitively impaired patients with hypertension the carotid intimal-media thickness, a tangible marker for cerebrovascular disease, correlates most strongly with elevated central, not cuff, blood pressures.
Central BP correlates better than cuff pressures for cerebrovascular and aortic diseases.
Short-term cold exposure quickly raises the central blood pressure of hypertensive men.
Atenolol increases central blood pressure and is one of the primary reasons beta-blocker usage has fallen as it does not lower important cardiovascular risks in hypertensive patients.
Atenolol use may cause augmentation of pressure waves in the central circulation, as it slows the heart and may permit initiation of a second pressure pulse wave before the first has completely finished its peripheral course.
Higher central blood pressure are not revealed by cuff values.
Central blood pressure is the pressure in the aorta.
Peripheral blood pressure is usually higher than central blood pressure, reflecting that the peripheral sites are closer to locations from which echoes reverberate.
The degree to which the peripheral blood pressure is higher than central blood pressure is partially dependent on the stiffness of the arteries.
Central pressure is strongly related to vascular disease than traditional upper arm blood pressure.
Central blood pressure is the pressure that the heart has to pump against to get blood to flow systemically.
Higher central blood pressures mean that the heart must work harder and can eventually lead to heart failure.
Central blood pressure also determines the pressure in the blood vessels to the brain and may lead to aneurysm formation and strokes.
Central blood pressure can be directly measured only using a pressure sensor or catheter inserted into the aorta.
Non-invasive central blood pressure measurement can be done by calculating central blood pressure using a physics-based model of the arteries between the aorta and the cuff, relating how pressure waves travel between the aorta and the occluded artery under a suprasystolic cuff.
Central pressure is estimated by using a mathematical relationship to a peripheral pressure.
The degree to which this mathematical relationship matches any individual determines the accuracy of the central pressure estimate in that subject.
Information collected from the upper-arm blood pressure measurement is used to calculate the CBP.
Central blood pressure estimates have been independently tested against an accepted non-invasive technique for central blood pressure estimation and indicates accurate data can be obtained.
The suprasystolic waveform is calibrated from the peripheral blood pressure and variations in the arm and cuff are therefore not significant.