Cell injury

Results from cell stress and can lead to an inability to adapt and can occur when cells are exposed to damaging agents.

Initially reversible injury exists that leads to functional and morphologic changes that are abate when the damaging stimulus is removed.

Reversible injury associated with reduced oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion and cellular swelling caused by water influx and ionic concentration changes.

Cell death occurs when cell injury becomes irreversible with structural changes such as amorphous densities in mitochondria and functional changes, such as membrane permeability loss.

Causes include oxygen derivation, physical damage, chemical exposure, drug exposure, infectious agents, immunologic reactions, genetic alterations and impaired nutrition balance.

The most important targets of injury include aerobic respiration involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and production of ATP, cell membrane integrity, protein synthesis, the cytoskeleton and integrity of the cell genetic apparatus.

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