Leads to functional disturbances in the myocardium with abnormalities in cardiac contractibility and relaxation, that is systolic and diastolic dysfunction, respectively.
Secondary to ischemia, infarction, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis.
Leads to myocardial stiffness and pump dysfunction.
High percentage of affected persons experience cardiac failure or sudden death.
Associated with deposition of extracellular matrix proteins disrupting heart structure at the myocyte level.
Fibroblast proliferation results in fibrosis and these cells are derived from embryonic mesenchymal cells.
Occurs, in addition, by epithelial mesenchymal transition.
TGF-ß1 promotes cardiac fibrosis.