Workplace exposure, tobacco smoke, consumption of green leafy vegetables, cereals, and tubers that are grown in contaminated soils are a major source of cadmium exposure.

By eating a wide range of fruits and vegetables dietary cadmium exposure can be reduced.

It is atherogenic with increased risks of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and increase mortality from cardiovascular disease, all noted in populations exposed to cadmium.

There is a dose dependent increase risk of all cardiovascular diseases, except stroke, by cadmium exposure.



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