A glycoprotein antigen expressed by ovarian cancer.

Also known as mucin 16 (MUC16), a protein encoded for by the MUC16 gene.

A member of mucin family glycoproteins.

A membrane associated mucin possessing a single transmembrane domain.

A component of the cornea and conjunctiva, respiratory tract and female reproductive epithelia.

CA 125 is a large, transmembrane glyco protein secreted go by coelomic (pleural and peritoneal) epithelium mullerian epithelium.

As a screening test for ovarian cancer it lacks sensitivity and is unable to detect early stage cancer.

May be elevated in ovarian, uterine, fallopian tube, lung, breast and gastrointestinal cancers.

May be elevated in benign processes such as endometriosis, benign ovarian diseases, pregnancy, and any abdominal inflammatory diseases, renal failure, nonmalignant ascites,any process that causes inflammation of the peritoneum or decreased clearance of CA 125.

79% of all ovarian cancers are positive for CA 125 (Rosen DG).

CA-125 levels are elevated in approximately 80% of postmenopausal women with advanced disease, but an elevated level is not always diagnostic of disease.

Elevations in premenopausal women is less of significance than in postmenopausal females.

Serum levels used to monitor response to treatment and for the following of patients with ovarian malignancy.

Approximately 50% of women with stage I ovarian cancer have a normal CA125 test.

Up to 20% of women with metastatic ovarian or tubal cancers have a normal CA 125 level. CA 125 testing is unreliable in women with early stage disease, in pre-menopausal women, and those with epithelial subtypes of cancer other than high-grade serous adenocarcinoma.

Levels >35 U/mL documented in 80-85% of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer (Bast).

Approximately 1% of healthy women have a minimally elevated CA-125 level.

Elevated in 95% of women with serous ovarian tumors and adenocarcinomas (Verheijen RH).

CA 125 has a role in monitoring disease response in epithelial ovarian cancer.

The sensitivity of CA 125 declines in heavily treated ovarian cancer that is resistant to platinum chemotherapy.

In the presence of advanced ovarian cancer elevated levels seen in greater than 90% of patients.

Most studies about prognosis related to ovarian cancer with serous histology.

Most common reason for normal levels with advanced disease suggested being related to mucinous histology as only 69% of advanced cases with this histology have elevated levels.

Generally not elevated in women with tumors of the ovary of mucinous or germ cell origin.

Acquired function in ovarian tumors is to protect tumor cells from an immune system surveillance (Tannock IF).

A doubling of a level from the normal level predict tumor progression with a sensitivity of 94% (Jacobs I).

Persistent elevations after treatment indicates the presence of residual cancer, and is only a matter of time before the tumor progresses and becomes clinically evident (Seelenmeyer C).

Treatment based on increasing levels does not improve outcomes: i.e. starting treatment for relapsed ovarian cancer based on Ca-125 levels does not improve survival compared to waiting till symptoms arise.




It is a marker of congestion in patients with acute heart failure.




Compared to usual care, CA 125-guided therapy is associated with marked reduction in the endpoint of one-year death  or acute heart failure-related readmission in acute heart failure.




A CA 125 guided diuretic strategy improves glomerular filtration rate and other renal function parameters at 72 hours in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction ( Nunez J).




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