A rare disease manifested by the presence of ossified or calcified material within the lumen of the airway. Also know as Lung Stones.

It is suggested that necrotizing granuloma formation within the mediastinal lymph nodes leads to calcification and eventual erosion through the bronchial wall.

It is a chronic process developed over months to years and most commonly a result of chronic granulomatous inflammation. 

Histoplasmosis and tuberculosis are the most common causes. 

Actinomycosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterium have been reported as causes.

Non-infectious causes such as aspiration of bone tissue or erosion and extrusion of calcified or ossified  bronchial cartilage plates are possible.

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