Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk
The Braden skin score can assess a patient’s risk of developing a pressure ulcer.
The Braden scale assesses a patient’s risk of developing a pressure ulcer by examining six criteria.
The score reflects skin integrity and overall patient status of mobility, activity, sensory perception, nutrition, moisture, and friction/shear without requiring any laboratory information.
A lowered Braden skin score indicates an increased risk of pressure injury.
Braden scale score may be associated with short term mortality in acute real patients, especially with Braden scale score of 15 or less.
Sensory perception parameter measures the ability to detect and respond to discomfort or pain that is related to pressure on parts of their body.
The ability to sense pain and the level of consciousness and one’s ability to cognitively react to pressure-related discomfort.
Excessive skin moisture compromises skin integrity by causing the skin tissue to become macerated and at risk for epidermal erosion.
A patient’s level of physical activity is assessed, the capability of a patient to adjust their body position independently, the physical competency to move and can involve a persons willingness to move.
The assessment of one’s nutritional status.
Friction and shear looks at the amount of assistance needed to move and the degree of sliding on beds or chairs that they experience.
Shear means the skin and bone are moving in opposite directions causing breakdown of cell membranes and capillaries.
The presence of moisture increases susceptibility of friction.
Each of the six categoties is rated on a scale of 1 to 4, with the exception of friction and shear category which is rated on a 1-3 scale.
Combination score is a possible 23 points.
The higher score means a lower risk of developing a pressure ulcer, while a lower BSS indicates increased risk of pressure injury.
A score of 23 indicates there is no risk for developing a pressure ulcer while the lowest possible score of 6 points represents the severest risk for developing a pressure ulcer.
The Braden Scale assessment score scale:
Very High Risk: Total Score 9 or less
High Risk: Total Score 10-12
Moderate Risk: Total Score 13-14
Mild Risk: Total Score 15-18
No Risk: Total Score 19-23
Studies have shown that the BSS may be associated with short-term mortality in acutely ill patients, especially those with BSS equal to 15 or less.