More than 500,000 procedures done annually in the U.S.
Most cases are autograft tissue bone grafts. Bone graft-tissue is harvested from the patient, and is usually from the iliac crest but may come from the distal femur or proximal tibia.
Autograft material is placed at the site of injury and possesses ability for new bone growth.
Autograft bone provides osteoconductivity which provides support to the attachment of new osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells.
The autograft bone provides a structure to which new cells can migrate and angiogenesis can occur.
Provides osteogenicity, the process of osteoblasts, at the site of new bone formation, to produce minerals to calcify the collagen matrix forming new bone substrate.
Induces the nondifferentiated stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts known as osteoinductivity,
May be associated with complications at the donor site with infection, bleeding, and pain.
Associated with only a limited supply of bone tissue that can be harvested.
Alternatives to allograft bone are allograft and use of substitute materials.