Bacterial enzymes that inactivate ß-lactam antibiotics by hydrolysis and make them ineffective agents.

As many as 450 different types have been isolated indicating they can inactivate a variety of antibiotics.

One group, the extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) are an increasingly significant cause of treatment failure.

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) have the ability to hydrolyze newer types of ß-lactam antibiotics.

E. Coli and Klebsiella organisms can produce extended spectrum ß-lactamases and are the major ESBLs worldwide.

Most ESBLs divided into 4 groups: TEM, SHV, OXA, and CTX-M types.

In 2011 CDC ESBL producing bacteria accounted for at least 26,000 infections and 1700 deaths annually.

ESBL increasingly common infections in the community and healthcare settings.

Carbpenems have been regarded as the treatment of choice for infections caused by ESBL producers

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