Produces insulin from intracellular granules containing a crystalline matrix with a rectangular profile, surrounded by a halo.
Beta cell mass disproportionately located in the head of the pancreas.
Sensitive to glucose which stimulates the secretion of insulin to keep blood sugar within a narrow range.
Pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channel is a critical regulator of beta cell insulin secretion.
Suggested that adult pancreatic beta cells are formed from self duplicating preexisting cells rather than by adult stem cells and individuals are born with a certain number of beta cells derived from a small number of progenitor cells.
Inverse association between function of beta cells and chronic complications of type 1 diabetes exists.
C-peptide levels are an indirect measure of viable beta cell function.
The higher C-peptide levels the lower the incidence of microvascular complications in type I diabetes.
Beta-cell failure is mediated by genetics, and exposure to chronically elevated blood sugars and free fatty acids.