An aromatic hydrocarbon that is an ubiquitous air pollutant, arising mostly from anthropogenic sources notably combustion.
A component of gasoline, industrial emissions, tobacco smoke, vehicle exhaustion, and has been used as a solvent in industry and consumer products.
Use has been restricted in many countries, but it’s still produce in high volumes for use as a chemical intermediate.
Occupational exposure occurs in many industries including :petroleum, chemical production, manufacturing, painting, shoemaking, printing, and rubber manufacturing.
Exposure can occur through polluted air and water and through the use of benzene containing products.
Concentrations in the workplace in outdoor air have declined over time.
Classify as a carcinogen.
It exhibits many key characteristics of a carcinogen including its metabolic activation, inducing oxidative stress, its genotoxicity, its immunosuppressive status, and causes hematologic toxicity.
Experimental studies indicate it causes genomic instability, and i hi it’s topoisomerase II, modulates receptor mediated effects relevant to athletics hydrocarbon receptor, and induces apoptosis.
Associated with acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Positive associations with exposure have been observed for chronic myelogenous leukemia and for lung cancer.
It is easily absorbed, widely distributed and extensively metabolized, yielding a complexcity of reactive electrophiles via multiple metabolic pathways in various tissues including bone marrow.