Prokaryote cells, with a cell membrane but without membrane bound nuclei or other membrane enclosed organelles.

Cell wall usually consists of a peptidoglycan, a polymer of mixed sugars and amino acids.

Two forms of cell walls: a thin wall-Gram negative and a thick wall Gram positive.

Gram positive bacterial cell wall retains crystal violet stain while the Gram negative bacteria does not retain the stain.

The Gram negative bacteria cell membrane is sandwiched between two phospholipid bilayer membranes.

Classified on the basis of Gram stain, shape, and form of respiration.

Require iron as an essential nutrient for survival and virulence, and for cellular biosynthetic pathways, including DNA replication and bacterial respiration.

Bacterial structural features include a flagellum that helps the cell to move, ribosomes for the translation of RNA to protein, and a nucleoid that holds all the genetic material in a circular structure.

There are many processes that occur in prokaryotic cells that allow them to survive. In prokaryotes, mRNA synthesis is initiated at a promoter sequence on the DNA template comprising two consensus sequences that recruit RNA polymerase. 

The prokaryotic polymerase consists of a core enzyme of four protein subunits and a σ protein that assists only with initiation. 

A fertility factor allows the bacteria to possess a pilus which allows it to transmit DNA to another bacteria which lacks the F factor, permitting the transmittance of resistance allowing it to survive in certain environments.



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