ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

High energy phosphate, ATP, required for many synthetic and degradation processes within the cell.


ATP is composed of adenine, a nitrogen containing base, ribose, a five carbon sugar called adenosine, and three phosphate groups. 


Cells need oxygen to create ATP, a molecule used by cells to store energy, and cells need ATP to regulate intracellular ion levels. 

ATP is used to fuel both the importation of ions necessary for cellular function and the removal of ions that are harmful to cellular function. 


Without oxygen, cells cannot manufacture the necessary ATP to regulate ion levels and thus cannot prevent the intracellular environment from approaching the ion concentration of the outside environment. 


It is not oxygen deprivation itself that precipitates cell death, but rather without oxygen the cell can not make the ATP it needs to regulate ion concentrations and maintain homeostasis.

Required for membrane transport, synthesis of proteins, lipogenesis, deacylation and reacylation reactions needed for phospholipid turnover.

Produced by oxidative phosphorylation of ADP in mitochondria with the reduction of oxygen by the electron transfer system, and by the glycolytic pathway, which generates ATP in the absence of oxygen using glucose derived from body fluids or glycogen hydrolysis.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the molecule that drives the exergonic transfer of energy to switch to endergonic anabolic reactions used in muscle contraction. 

ATP  causes muscles to work which can require a breakdown, and also to build in the rest period, which occurs during the strengthening phase associated with muscular contraction. 

Depletion and decreased synthesis frequently associated with hypoxia and chemical injury.

Depletion to levels less than 5-10% of normal decreases the activity of plasma membrane energy dependent sodium pump causing sodium to accumulate intracellularly, the diffusion of potassium out of the cells and gain of solute with isosmotic gain of water causing intracellular cell swelling and dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *