A selective β1 receptor antagonist.
A selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (β-blockers).
Works by slowing down the heart and reducing its workload.
Does not pass through the blood–brain barrier thus avoiding various central nervous system side effects.
Used for a number of conditions including: hypertension, angina, acute myocardial infarction, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, and Graves’ disease until antithyroid medication can take effect.
Presently recommended as complementary medication in hypertension, as ACE Inhibitors, calcium antagonists and or diuretics are used as first line therapy.
Contraindications include bradycardia, asthma, cardiogenic shock, symptomatic hypotension, Prinzmetal’s angina, metabolic acidosis, severe disorders of the peripheral arterial circulation, AV-Blockage of second and third degree, decompensated congestive heart failure, sick sinus syndrome, and pheochromocytoma.
Associated with few central nervous system side effects, carries a risk of type 2 diabetes, and blunts the sympathetic nervous system response to hypoglycemia.
Side effects include:indigestion,confusion,constipation,depression,dizziness,dry mouth,cold extremities, hair loss, hypotension, hallucinations, insomnia, impotence, rhinitis, nightmares, rash, impaired balance and fatigue.
Classified as a β1-selective drug, that exerts greater blocking activity on myocardial β1-receptors than on β2 receptors in the lung.
Due to its cardioselective properties, the risk of bronchospasm reactions is reduced compared to nonselective drugs as propranolol.
Bronchosoasm may be encountered at high doses.
Moderate doses of selective B blockers may be tolerated in asthma.
Provisional data suggests atenolol provides weaker protective action against cardiovascular complications of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to other antihypertensive drugs.
Excreted almost exclusively by the kidney, making it a reasonable choice in individuals with end-stage liver disease.
Symptoms of overdose reflect excessive pharmacodynamic actions on β1 and also β2-receptors and include: bradycardia, severe hypotension, acute heart failure, hypoglycemia and bronchospastic reactions.
Shown not to be than placebo in clinical outcomes such as reducing mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (Bengalore S et al).
Classified by FDA in pregnancy as category D.
The mean elimination halflife is 6 hours.
Usual oral dose of 25 to 100 mg lasts over a period of 24 hours.
Concentration found in brain tissue is approximately 15% of the plasma concentration only.
Crosses the placenta barrier freely and the milk of breastfeeding mothers, contains approximately 3 times the plasma concentrations.
Almost exclusively eliminated by the kidney.
Orange juice impairs uptake.
Classified as a β1-selective drug, one that exerts greater blocking activity on myocardial β1-receptors than on β2 receptors in the lung.
Belongs to the group of beta blockers.
Available by Oral or IV treatment.
Bioavailability 40-50%, and protein binding 6-16%.
Hepatic metabolism is <10%.
Half-life of the drug is 6-7 hours.
Primary renal excretion.
Does not pass through the blood-brain barrier and avoids central nervous system side effects.
Utilized for hypertension, angina, acute myocardial infarction, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, congestive heart failure, prevention of migraine headaches, hyperthyroidism, and the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.
Contraidications include bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, asthma, symptomatic hypotension, angina of the Prinzmetal type, metabolic acidosis, severe peripheral arterial disease, AV-Blockage of second and third degree, acutely decompensated congestive heart failure, sick sinus syndrome, and pheochromocytoma.
May retard fetal growth.
Associated with a risk of provoking diabetes mellitus, and may mask hypoglycemia symptoms.
Side effects include:indigestion, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, fatigue, weakness impotence, confusion, insomnia, hallucinations, rash, paresthesias, impaired balance and gait,
The action of the usual oral dose of 25 to 100 mg lasts over a period of 24 hours.
A hydrophilic drug.
Crosses the placenta freely.