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Articular cartilage

Covering over the ends of bones.

Smooth, tough and are the bearing surfaces of the joint.

Produced by chondrocytes.

Injuries to articular cartilage do not heal well because chondrocytes divide slowly, as a result, degeneration and joint deterioration can occur.

Injuries can be focal, or global.

Wearing out of this tissue results in osteoarthritis.

When worn out completely bone-on-bone arthritis occurs, ref2242ed to as end stage osteoarthritis.

When it wears out bone is exposed pain and joint disability occurs.

Has no nerve endings, but exposed bone does.

When unstable leads to joint swelling.

Injury may be due to joint dislocation, ligament tears, meniscus tears, trauma from falls or impact, infection, and inflammatory processes such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis.

Unstable cartilage can lead to irritation of the covering of the joint, the synovium, causing excessive secretion of synovial fluid.

The most common joints with symptomatic cartilage injuries include: the knee, shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee.

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