An arterial blood gases (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. This test is used to find out how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
As blood passes through your lungs, oxygen moves into the blood while carbon dioxide moves out of the blood into the lungs. An ABG test uses blood drawn from an artery, where the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels can be measured before they enter body tissues. An ABG measures:
Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2).
This measures the pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood and how well oxygen is able to move from the airspace of the lungs into the blood.
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2).
This measures the pressure of carbon dioxide dissolved in the blood and how well carbon dioxide is able to move out of the body.
The pH measures hydrogen ions (H+) in blood. The pH of blood is usually between 7.35 and 7.45. A pH of less than 7.0 is called acid and a pH greater than 7.0 is called basic (alkaline). So blood is slightly basic.
Bicarbonate is a chemical (buffer) that keeps the pH of blood from becoming too acidic or too basic.
Oxygen content (O2CT) and oxygen saturation (O2Sat) values.
O2 content measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. Oxygen saturation measures how much of the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is carrying oxygen (O2).
Blood for an ABG test is taken from an artery. Most other blood tests are done on a sample of blood taken from a vein, after the blood has already passed through the body’s tissues where the oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide is produced.