An apple is a round, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica). 

Apple trees are cultivated worldwide.

Apples grown from seed tend to be very different from those of their parents, and the resultant fruit frequently lacks desired characteristics. 

Generally, apple cultivars are propagated by clonal grafting onto rootstocks. 

Rootstocks are used to control the speed of growth and the size of the resulting tree, allowing for easier harvesting.

There are more than 7,500 cultivars of apples. 

Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, eating raw, and cider production. 

Worldwide production of apples in 2021 was 93 million tonnes, with China accounting for nearly half of the total.

The apple is a deciduous tree, generally standing 2 to 4.5 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in cultivation and up to 9 m (30 ft) in the wild. 

When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method.

The fruit is a pome that matures in late summer or autumn, and cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. 

The skin of ripe apples is red, yellow, green, pink, or russetted, though many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found.

The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax.

The exocarp, or flesh, is generally pale yellowish-white,[8] though pink, yellow or green exocarps also occur.

Among the traits selected for by growers are size, fruit acidity, color, firmness, and soluble sugar. 

Controlled facilities use high humidity, low oxygen, and controlled carbon dioxide levels to maintain fruit freshness.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples.

Many apples grow readily from seeds. 

Apples must be propagated asexually to obtain the sweetness and other desirable characteristics of the parent. 

Grafting is usually used to produce trees of a large variety of sizes, as well as changing the winter hardiness, insect and disease resistance, and soil preference of the resulting tree. 

Apples can be stored for a few months in controlled atmosphere with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and high air filtration to delay ethylene-induced ripening. 

Most cultivars of apple can be held for approximately two weeks when kept at the coolest part of the refrigerator.

Some cultivars can be stored up to a year without significant degradation, and some varieties of apples have more than three times the storage life of others.

Apples may be sprayed with a substance 1-methylcyclopropene blocking the apples’ ethylene receptors, temporarily preventing them from ripening.


Apples, with skin 

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 218 kJ (52 kcal)

Carbohydrates 13.81 g

Sugars 10.39

Dietary fiber 2.4 g

Fat 0.17 g

Protein 0.26 g

Vitamins Quantity %DV†

Vitamin A equiv.-0% 3 μg

beta-Carotene-0%27 μg

lutein zeaxanthin-29 μg

Thiamine (B1) 1% 0.017 mg

Riboflavin (B2) 2% 0.026 mg

Niacin (B3) 1% 0.091 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5) 1% 0.061 mg

Vitamin B6 3% 0.041 mg

Folate (B9) 1% 3 μg

Vitamin C 6% 4.6 mg

Vitamin E 1% 0.18 mg

Vitamin K 2% 2.2 μg

Minerals Quantity %DV†

Calcium 1% 6 mg

Iron 1% 0.12 mg

Magnesium 1% 5 mg

Manganese 2% 0.035 mg

Phosphorus 2% 11 mg

Potassium 2% 107 mg

Sodium 0% 1 mg

Zinc 0% 0.04 mg

Other constituents Quantity

Water 85.56 g

A raw apple is 86% water and 14% carbohydrates, with negligible content of fat and protein.

A raw apple with skin weighing 100 grams provides 52 calories and a moderate content of dietary fiber: there is low content of micronutrients, with the Daily Values of all falling below 10%.

All parts of the fruit, including the skin, except for the seeds, are suitable for human consumption. 

The core, from stem to bottom, containing the seeds, is usually not eaten and is discarded.

Apples can be consumed in various ways: juice, in salads, baked in pies, cooked into sauces and spreads like apple butter, and other baked dishes.

Apples are sometimes used as an ingredient in savory foods, such as sausage and stuffing.

Apples can be canned, dried or frozen.

Canned or frozen apples are eventually baked into pies or other cooked dishes. 

Apple juice or cider is also bottled. 

Apple juice is often concentrated and frozen.

Apples are often eaten raw. 

Apples also figure into many traditional or festival occasions: toffee apple, candy apples, caramel apples, apples and honey.

are a ritual food pairing eaten during the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.

Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. When cooked, some apple cultivars easily form a puree known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are often baked or stewed and are also (cooked) in some meat dishes. Dried apples can be eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid).

Apples are milled or pressed to produce apple juice, which may be drunk unfiltered (called apple cider in North America), or filtered. Filtered juice is often concentrated and frozen, then reconstituted later and consumed. Apple juice can be fermented to make cider (called hard cider in North America), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados, and apfelwein.

The enzyme polyphenol oxidase causes browning in sliced or bruised apples.

Polyphenol oxidase enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to o-quinones, a browning factor.

Browning reduces apple taste, color, and food value, and a non-browning group of apples have been genetically modified to silence the expression of polyphenol oxidase, thereby delaying a browning effect and improving apple eating quality.

One form of apple allergy is called birch-apple syndrome and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen.

Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. 

Reactions generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat, but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.

This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed, as the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. 

Long storage times can increase the amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome.

Apple seeds contain small amounts of amygdalin, a sugar and cyanide compound known as a cyanogenic glycoside. 

Ingesting small amounts of apple seeds causes no ill effects, but consumption of extremely large doses can cause adverse reactions. 

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