Information from gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and adipose tissue provided to the hypothalamus and brainstem by the vagus nerve and hormonal mediators, such as ghrelin, insulin and leptin.

Appetite regulation is an immensely complex process involving the gastrointestinal tract, many hormones, and both the central and autonomic nervous systems.

Appetite includes the biological urge to eat as well as the interplay between senses, habits, past experiences, future expectations and available food.

The sensing of fuel and appetite are controlled by the hypothalamus.

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain, is the main regulatory organ for the human appetite. 

Appetite and hunger are regulated by the hypothalamus in conjunction with other brain regions such as the striatum, the amygdala, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex.

Adjustments in feeding and energy expenditure ensure adequate balance matching bodily needs.

Eating satiates the appetite, provides feelings of gratification and stimulates the brain for reward and motivation and engages the limbic and paralimbic areas under the influence of neurotransmitters and releasing neuropeptides.

Increases in fructose increases insulin resistance.

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