Antiemetics can be used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer.
They may be used for gastroenteritis.
5 classes antidopaminergic drugs, antiserotoninergic, antihistamines, anticholinergics and neurokinins.
Antidopaminergic antiemetics are associated with be a threefold increased risk of stroke shortly after the initiation of treatment: domperidone, metopimazine, and metoclopramide.
5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists odansetron, granisetron dolasetron,and palonesetron.
Palonesetron is a second generation 5-HT3RA and has a significantly longer half-life than the first generation compounds.
Aprepitant, fosaprepitant, fosapretant, rolapitant, netipitant, fosnetupitant are neurokinin-1 receptor antgonists
5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
5-HT3 receptor antagonists can be used to treat post-operative and cytotoxic induced drug nausea and vomiting.
5-HT3 receptor antagonists can cause constipation or diarrhea, dry mouth, and fatigue.
Dolasetron (Anzemet) can be administered in tablet form or in an injection.
Granisetron (Kytril, Sancuso) can be administered in tablet (Kytril), oral solution (Kytril), injection D(Kytril), or in a single transdermal patch to the upper arm (SANCUSO).
Ondansetron (Zofran) is administered in an oral tablet form, orally dissolving tablet form, orally dissolving film, sublingual, or in an IV/IM injection.
Tropisetron (Setrovel, Navoban) can be administered in oral capsules or in injection form.
Palonosetron (Aloxi) can be administered in an injection or in oral capsules.
Dopamine antagonists act on the brainstem and are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with cancer, radiation sickness, opioids, cytotoxic drugs and general anaesthetics.
Side effects of dopamine antagonists include muscle spasms and restlessness.
NK1 receptor antagonists
Antihistamines-H1 histamine receptor antagonists are effective in motion sickness, morning sickness in pregnancy, and to combat opioid nausea.
H1 receptors are present in brain central areas include area postrema and vomiting center in the vestibular nucleus.
Antihistamines have anticholinergic properties that block muscarinic receptors at the same sites.
Mirtazapine an antidepressant that also has antiemetic effects it is also a potent histamine H1 receptor antagonist.
Promethazine can be administered via a rectal suppository, intravenous injection, oral tablet or oral suspension for adults and children over 2 years of age.
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents.
Sativex an oral spray contains THC and CBD.
Trimethobenzamide is thought to work on the CTZ
Ginger contains 5-HT3 antagonists