A biopharmaceutical drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
Trade name Kineret
It is a recombinant and slightly modified version of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein.
It blocks the biologic activity of IL-1 alpha and beta by competitively inhibiting IL-1 binding to the interleukin type 1 receptor (IL-1RI), which is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and organs.
It is a recombinant and slightly modified version of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra ) protein.
US: B- No risk in non-human studies.
Pregnancy category AU: B1
Metabolism is predominantly renal.
Elimination half-life 4-6 hrs.
It is used as a second line treatment to manage symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) has failed.
It can be used in combination with some DMARDs.
It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, familial Mediterranean fever, and Still’s disease.
It is used to treat systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA), gout, calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD), Behçet’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, uveitis, and other auto-inflammatory syndromes, off-label.
Appears to be safe in animal studies.
It should not be used in people who have active infections or latent turberculosis, who have low white blood cells counts, or who are taking TNF inhibitors.
More than ten percent have injection site reactions, headaches, and have increased levels of cholesterol in their blood.
1-10% of patients have severe infections, decreased white blood cells, or decreased platelets.
It differs from the sequence of Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist by one methionine added to its N-terminus.
Anakinra/tocilizumab is used for the treatment of Adult-Onset Still’s Disease refractory to second-line therapy.
The United States FDA approved its use under an emergency use authorization for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized adults with pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen (low- or high-flow oxygen) who are at risk of progressing to severe respiratory failure and likely to have an elevated plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).
It should not be used in people who have active infections or latent tuberculosis, or who are taking TNF inhibitors.
More than ten percent of people taking Anakinra have injection site reactions, headaches, and have increased cholesterol levels.
Recipients have increased likelihood of decreased white blood cells counts, platelets counts.
One percent of patients get severe infections, while 4.5% for patients with asthma compared to 0% placebo patients with asthma.
It appear to reduce the neuropathic pain experienced by patients undergoing chemotherapy with vincristine.
It appears to show efficacy for numerous dermatologic conditions, with the strongest evidence for hidradenitis suppurativa, Behçet’s disease, Muckle–Wells syndrome, and SAPHO syndrome.
Evidence shows that treatment with anakinra reduces both the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality risk of hospitalized non-intubated patients with COVID-19 without increasing the risk of adverse events.