Alpha-PVP (flakka)


Drug substance alpha-PVP, also known as flakka.

Routes of administration oral, intranasal, vaporization, intravenous, rectal, and sublingual.

A synthetic stimulant of the cathinone class sold as a designer drug.

Colloquially it is sometimes called flakka or gravel. α-PVP is chemically related to pyrovalerone and is the ketone analog of prolintane.

α-PVP, like other psychostimulants, can cause hyperstimulation, paranoia, and hallucinations.

Reported to be a significant contributory cause of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs.

Acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

May be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Blood or plasma concentrations are in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >100 μg/L in intoxicated patients and >300 μg/L in victims of acute overdosage.

It is sometimes the active ingredient in recreational drugs sold as “bath salts”.

Flakka is the name used in Florida, or “gravel” in other parts of the U.S.

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