Alpha-pharmaceuticals are radionuclides that emits alpha particles.
Targeted alpha therapy has the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing cancer cells.
Alpha particles differ from beta particles in energy, tissue range, linear energy transfer, number of DNA hits needed to kill cancer cells.
Alpha pharmaceuticals can deliver an intense and highly localized dose of radiation to bone surfaces.
Alpha particles are heavier then beta particles.
Alpha particles travel over a shorter distance very beta particles when deposited in tissues.
Alpha particles travel to adjacent areas of radium deposits in the sclerotic lesions correspond to malignant cells in the bone.
Alpha particles are high energy and damage cancer cells and adjacent bone marrow and stromal cells.
Alpha particles associated with damage to the hematopoietic precursors cells and can lead to pancytopenia.
Radium-223 is injectable radiopharmaceutical with the ability to seek and deposit in new bone forming areas, which corresponds to sclerotic/osteoblast bone metastases
Radium-223 (Xofigo) and daughter radionuclides are more potent, causing double-stranded DNA breaks leading to cell death with less radiation to healthy bone marrow than standard bone seeking beta emitters.
Radium-223 does not require cells to cycle to achieve antitumor effects.
Radian-223 is a highly targeted, alpha-pharmaceutical for patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
Radium-223 has a half-life of 11.4 days and decays by the emission of four alpha particles.
Radium-223 is a natural bone seeking radionuclide.
Radium-223 that is not taken up by bone metastases is rapidly cleared to the gut and excreted.
Radium-223 not approved for prostate cancer that has spread to organs other than bones.
Alpha pharmaceuticals are easily handled and do not require complex shielding during shipping or administration.