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Allopurinol

Reduces serum urate level.

Decreases uric acid production by inhibiting xanthine oxidase.

Is used to decrease uric acid formation.

Has no effect on existing uric acid.

Requires 24-72 hours to effectively prevent de novo formation of uric acid.

Can be taken once daily.

Adverse effects include rash, pruritus, and a hypersensitivity syndrome with multiorgan involvement.

Caution indicated when treating patients with renal insufficiency.

Toxic related effects increased in the presence of pronounced renal impairment.

Is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk among hyperuricemic patients.

Has a positive effect on mild hypertension among hyperuricemic adolescents.

Increases exercise capacity among patients with stable angina and no history of gout or hyperuricemia.

Decreases cardiovascular event rates in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Has beneficial effects on vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

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