Adverse pregnancy outcomes

Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) include: gestational diabetes, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and related disorders are major health risks for pregnant individuals during pregnancy and throughout their lifespan.

Pregnant patients who experience adverse pregnancy outcomes have a 50% increase risk of dying from any cause up to 46 years after giving birth: cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were the major specific causes of death with adverse pregnancy outcomes in a Swedish study of 2.2 million participants.

In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Approximately 20% of pregnancies are affected by one or more adverse pregnancy outcomes.

The highest prevalence of a APOs occurs in American Indian, Asian, Black, Hispanic, or Islander patients.

After APO‘s risks include chronic hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type two diabetes, ischemic heart disease, early stroke, premature cognitive decline, and early mortality.

Adverse outcomes vary by the severity of the adverse events, the gestational age at presentation, and its persistence after delivery.

The prevalence of marijuana use among pregnant women is approximately 7%.

The use of marijuana in pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in the rate of preterm birth.

Cannabis use is associated with a 12% preterm birth rate, while it is is 6.1% among non-users.

In a  multi center observational study adverse pregnancy outcome-small for gestational age birth, medically indicated preterm birth, stillbirth, or hypertensive disorder in pregnancy are more frequent in patients with cannabis exposure.

The risk for adverse outcomes is higher among those who continue to use cannabis beyond the first trimester.

Cannabis you should be avoided during pregnancy to optimize, maternal and neonatal outcomes.

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