Acute promyelocytic leukemia differentiation syndrome

Associated with unexplained fever, dyspnea, weight gain, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural and/or pericardial effusions with or without leukocytosis seen when patients are treated with arsenic trioxide/ATRA/ chemotherapy.

Also known as cytokines release syndrome.

High-dose corticosteroids is the treatment and should be continued for 3 days or until signs have abated.

With differentiation syndrome patients should be treated with intravenous steroids to prevent treatment-related mortality.

It may be appropriate to reduce doses of anthracycline in older patients and children and adolescents to minimize morbidity

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