Interleukin 3 (IL3) is a cytokine that regulates hematopoiesis by controlling the production, differentiation and function of granulocytes and macrophages.
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a type of cytokine, which is a small protein involved in cell signaling and communication within the immune system.
IL-3 is primarily produced by activated T cells and plays a crucial role in regulating the growth, differentiation, and survival of various cells involved in the immune response.
IL-3 acts as a growth factor for multiple types of white blood cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, which are responsible for the production of different blood cells.
It stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of these progenitor cells into specific types of blood cells, such as granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and certain types of lymphocytes.
In addition to its role in cell growth and differentiation, IL-3 also enhances the function of mature immune cells, such as promoting the activation and function of mast cells and enhancing the production of antibodies by B cells.
Overall, interleukin-3 plays a vital role in regulating the immune response by influencing the development, proliferation, and function of various immune cells. It is involved in maintaining proper immune function and is studied in the context of immune system disorders, cancer, and potential therapeutic applications.
The protein, which exists in vivo as a monomer, is produced in activated T cells and mast cells, and is activated by the cleavage of an N-terminal signal sequence.
IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators such as phorbol esters.
However, IL3 is constitutively expressed in the myelomonocytic leukemia cell line.
It is thought that the genetic change of the cell line to constitutive production of IL3 is the key event in development of this leukaemia.