See ((Gender in health and disease))
Women’s health extends far beyond reproductive health.
Women’s health is recognized to encompass physical, mental, and emotional well-being.
Sex and gender differences exist in genetics, epigenomic modifiers, hormonal milieu, immune function, neurocognitive aging, vascular health, response to therapeutics and interaction with healthcare systems.
Women have specific health needs related to pregnancy, menopause and other life stages.
Nearly 80% of women older than 60 years and 90% of women older than 89 years have at least one chronic disease.
Several chronic diseases affect women’s health disproportionately and impair their quality of life including: auto immune diseases mental health disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and dementia.
With type 2 diabetes have a 5-7 fold higher rate of coronary heart disease death.
Have a wider pelvis and increased valgus angulation at the knee and increased foot pronation may increase their risk of injury the lower extremity.
Life span averages more than 7 years longer than men.
More commonly affected by osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.
Risk factors for heart disease that we see in men are very similar to women’s risk factors.
The lifetime is one out of every two men will develop a cardiovascular event during his remaining lifetime and for women, its about one out of every three.
One in 8 women will develop, and one in 25 will die of breast cancer.
One in three women will die of coronary heart disease and one in six women will die of stroke.
Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality.
Heart disease responsible for one in every four female deaths.
Because of the differences between men and women in the presentation and manifestation of coronary heart disease, it is still overlooked and underrecognized in women.
Increasing rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes and coronary artery disease in younger women may reflect increasing rates of obesity.
Women have a lower rate of statin use, coronary reperfusion and guideline based cardiovascular care.
Women have higher rates of microvascular Coronary artery disease, Takotsubo disease, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Pregnant women with a history of hypertensive disease of pregnancy are at great risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality.
Evidence suggests certain reproductive health conditions such as menstrual irregularities, recurrent miscarriage, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, small for gestational age babies, ensuring the reproductive lifespan are related to elevated long-term cardiovascular disease risk.
Marked progress has occurred in preventing and managing breast cancer.
Genetic testing with prophylactic measures and medication to prevent cancer are common place.
Advances in targeted therapy based on biologic and molecular markers have improved prognosis for patients with breast cancer.
Cervical cancer screening and HPvaccine has markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence.
Transgender women have higher rates of mood disorders, substance abuse, sexually transmitted infections then non-transgender women, yet they receive less preventive care.