Virchow’s triad


Virchow’s triad describes the three broad categories of factors that are thought to contribute to thrombosis:


Hemodynamic changes (stasis, turbulence)

Endothelial injury/dysfunction

Stasis includes: venous stasis, long surgical operations, prolonged immobility and varicose veins.

Endothelial injury or vessel wall injury refers to trauma to endothelium includes vessel piercings and damages arising from shear stress or hypertension.

Hypercoagulability includes alterations in the constitution of blood: hyperviscosity, coagulation factor V Leiden mutation, coagulation factor II G2021A mutation, deficiency of antithrombin III, protein C or S deficiency, nephrotic syndrome, changes after severe trauma or burn, cancer, late pregnancy and delivery, race, advanced age, cigarette smoking, hormonal contraceptives, and obesity.