Intestinal microbiotome

Gut microbiome.

Intestinal microbiome.

Trillions of microbial cells inhabit the human body, outnumbering human cells by 10 to one according to some estimates.

The gut microbiome goes through a process that is influenced by the environment, diet, genetics, gender, and multiple other factors. 

The microbiome matures to contain over 100 trillion micro organisms with a high degree of variability between individuals and continues to evolve as one ages.

The gut microbiome is a complex, living entity that starts developing at birth continues throughout adulthood.

The intestines are characterized by a specific microbiome, being colonized by permanent systems of intestinal micro organisms-enterotypes.

The largest number of bacteria reside in the colon, on the surface of the mucous membrane.

The gut microbiome  is involved in metabolism, absorption of nutrients, defense against pathogenic bacteria, plays a key role in development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, regulation of inflammation, and overall host immunity.

The gut microbiome plays a key role in the development of gut associated lymphoid tissue, regulation of inflammation and overall host immunity.

The gut microbiome affects the immune function, with immune regulatory proteins derived from gut microbes found in distant organs. 

The rich array of intestinal microbiota helps process nutrients in food, bolsters the immune system and promotes health.

Commensal intestinal microflora participate in the degradation of nutrients, the growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelium cells, local peristalsis, resistance to colonization by an elimination of pathogens, and also affects the maturation of the immune system

The gut microbiota is considered an organ with the level of complexity comparable to that of any other organ system.

Gut microbiota comprises approximately 3×10 to the 13th bacterial cells and generally exhibit commensalism with the host and are critical to health.

Gut microbiota influences physiological functions, local mucosal homeostasis, inflammation, and immunity.

Its flora can produce a range of neuroactive molecules, such as acetylcholine, catecholamines, γ-aminobutyric acid, histamine, melatonin, and serotonin, which are essential for regulating peristalsis and sensation in the gut.

Alterations of the gut flora composition related to diet, disease, or drugs can change the level of circulating cytokines, some of which can affect the brain.

Excessive macronutrient intake contributes to gut inflammation and perturbation of homeostasis, and micronutrients may also be involved.

The intestine is the largest immune system compartment, it ensures tolerance to foreign antigens, such as food and commensal bacteria.

The gut is populated with more than 800 species of microbes, the majority of which are excreted in feces, and a number of which are well equipped to be pathogenic.

Has a role in the pathophysiology of obesity by influencing the host energy metabolism, adiposity, neuroendocrine signaling, and insulin sensitivity.

The same meal can have a variable effect on blood glucose in different nondiabetic individuals depending, in part, on the make up of the gut microbiota.

A diminished microbial ecosystem affects allergies and inflammation, metabolic diseases like diabetes and obesity, and even mental health conditions like depression and anxiety.

After only 10 days of treatment with systemic antibiotics, the gut microbiota can be altered for up to 1 year.

Inappropriate antibiotic exposure may be linked to an increased risk of colon cancer by alterations in the microbiome.

The gut flora is established at one to two years after birth.

By 1-2 years the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal mucosal barrier that it secretes have co-developed in a way that is tolerant to, and even supportive of, the gut flora and that also provides a barrier to pathogenic organisms.

Higher gut microbial diversity is associated with improved survival in patients undergoing hematopoeticpoetic stem cell transplantation.

Much of the composition of the microbiome is established early in life, influenced by genetics and whether you were breast-fed or bottle-fed.

Microbial diversity is undermined by the American diet, rich in sugar, meats and processed foods.

A diet containing a variety of plant-based foods may be crucial to achieving a healthier microbiome.

The ecosystem in the gut determines how it absorbs and processes nutrients.

Alterations in the intestinal microbiota may influence NAFLD increase the permeability of intestinal tissue, facilitating increased liver exposure to harmful substances such as translocated bacteria, bacterial toxins, and inflammatory chemical signals.

The nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the microbial community that encounters that food.

Calorie-restricted patients have a richer and more diverse microbial community in the gut than those eating a typical American diet.

Calorie-restricted patients carry several strains bacteria that promote health, unique to a plant-based diet.

Diet alterations can induce persistent changes in a gut microbial community.

Microbiota may also play a role as Enterobacteriaceae was found in significantly high levels in patients with diverticular disease.

Depletion of Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium cluster IX, Fusobacterium, and Lactobacillaceae are found in patients with symptomatic diverticula disease.

When the intestinal ecology is altered, commensal bacteria such as Clostridium difficile and vancomycin resistant enterococcus may expand and become pathogenic and exert pathobiologic effects.

Chemotherapy can lead to altered gut micribiome and promote CDI even in the absence of antibiotic drug exposure.

Spouses who live together will develop microbial communities that are similar to each other.

To improve the micrbiotome, a plant-based diet high in fiber is recommended.

Such a diet provides genetic diversity, healthier species and fewer pathogenic bacteria living in the gut

Patients with a high microbiota metabotype have an elevated risk for irinotecan dependent adverse drug responses.

PD-1 inhibitor responses in melanoma are related to gut microbiome, with response rate much higher in patients with a diversity of of bacteria in their gut and a different composition of gut bacteria with more Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcacaceae and Clostridiales.

Patients with melanoma treated with PD-1 inhibitors and who failed to respond to therapy had a higher level of Bacteroides.

There is a relationship between the gut microbiota and antibiotics, and the response to checkpoint inhibitors: antibiotics delivered before treatment may diminish benefits in response rates and duration of responses.

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