From Standard Of Care

Brisk walking daily for 20 minutes confers 30-40% reduced risk of myocardial infarction.

Multidrug resistant tuberculosis makes up @ 3.5% of new cases & about 20 percent of retreated cases worldwide.

Estimated that more than 20% of commonly used drugs are prescribed off label.

89% of head trauma patients present to EDs with minor trauma and 11% have moderate-severe injury. Brain injury

Almost 90,000 women in US are diagnosed with gynecologic malignancies each year and there are over 28,000 deaths.

Glioblastoma multiforme-Less than 10% of patients are alive at 5 years after diagnosis.

Health care accounts for close to $2.9 trillion dollars per year in spending, or 17.4% of the GDP.

Cardiovascular disease accounts for approximately 10% of all global health care spending.

Most common cancer in pregnancy is cervical cancer.

85% of HPV related oral pharyngeal cancer lesions are positive for HPV-16.

The chance that a person will develop a malignant tumor of the brain or spinal cord in his or her lifetime is less than 1%, about 1 in 140 for a man and 1 in 180 for a woman.

Lifetime risk of cancers of GI tract vary by a factor 24-0.2% small intestine and 4.82% for the large intestine.

Mean survival benefit from organ transplants 2.4 yrs in pancreas recipients to 4.9 yrs in heart recipients.

Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal abnormality.

The female egg cell is the largest cell in the human body. It is about 175 000 times heavier than the smallest cell, the male sperm cell.

Flow cytometry is a technique for counting and examining microscopic particles, such as cells and chromosomes, by suspending them in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus.

Medulloblastoma accounts for 20%-25% of childhood CNS tumors.

Lymphocytes have long life spans, nearly 80 percent survive for four years and some last as much as 20 years or more.

Cardiovascular disease associated with 1 in 3 deaths in the U.S.

In-flight medical issues estimated to occur up to 350 times/day worldwide (one in 14,000-40,000 passengers).

Preeclampsia is estimated to affect about 5% of deliveries while eclampsia affects about 1.4% of deliveries.

About 3-8% of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer metastasis at the time of presentation.

5q deletion Is the most common cytogenetic abnormality in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Chemotherapy agents can be categorized by their vesicant potential: high risk vesicants, irritants and neutral.

Presently methylmalonic acid is the most sensitive and specific assay to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency.

By the time a fetus is six months old and approximately 12 inches in size, its fingerprints and footprints are fully developed

Mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Patients with bilpolar disorders die an average of 8-20 years sooner than the general Population.

Ganglion cysts most common benign tumor of the hand, accounting for 60-70% of all hand nodules.

Infections of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt can occur in up to 27% of patients, and may be associated with cognitive impairments and other neurologic problems, and rarely death.

80% of patients with congestive heart failure with preserved ejection failure are overweight or obese.

71 consecutive for drugs approved for solid tumors between 2002 and 2014, the median improvement in overall survival was 2.1 months (Mailankody S).

Congestive heart failure accounts for more than 1 million hospital admission per year.

Congestive heart failure accounts for 1-2% of total healthcare costs in industrialized countries.

Intravenous immune globulins a solution of human plasma derived immunoglobulin containing extensive range of immune antibodies that may protect against human pathogens or antigens.

Courvosier's sign is that of common bile duct obstruction in the presence of painless jaundice, with a palpable gallbladder highly suggestive of a malignant obstruction.

Urolithiasis prevalence in approximately 2-3% of general population.

Triglyceride elevations in women are more significant than in men, as a cause of atherosclerosis.

Parvovirus 19 causes transient aplastic crisis, hydrops fetalis, bone marrow suppression in immunocompromised hosts, purpuric vasculitis and both acute and chronic arthropathy in adults.

Nocturnal dialysis enables patients to undergo hemodialysis seven nights per week while sleeping and provides better clearance of uremic toxins than conventional hemodialysis.

Nosocomial infections affect approximately 10% of hospitalized patients.

Approximately 20% of American women and 10% of American men will sustain a hip fracture, almost always related to a fall.

Influenza Type A and B viruses express hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) surface antigens.

Resistant hypertension is defined as the inability to control office blood pressure despite optimal therapy with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs at full dosages.

Chromagranin A is a useful marker for following the course of illness in carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors.

Prion protein is normally present in neurons and diseases occur when prion protein undergoes changes that confer resistance to proteases.

Rotator cuff tear is the most common clinical problem of the shoulder.

Serum ferritin is the most common used estimate of body iron stores and reflects only 1% of the total iron storage pool.

IL-6 augments cell growth, inhibits apoptosis, and enhances drug resistance inmultiple myeloma.

The Babinski reflex is normal in younger children, but abnormal after the age of 2.

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension occurs in 2-4% of patients after acute pulmonary embolism.

20% of ischemic strokes involve the posterior vertebrobasilar circulation.

B12 deficiency can begin as early as 1 year after total gastrectomy.

Virus-associated malignancies account for 10-15% of human cancers worldwide.

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations including both germline and somatic mutations found in 20-30% of patients with ovarian cancer.

6-8% of patients of patients with unstable angina have a nonfatal myocardial infarction or die within the first year after diagnosis.

Megakaryocytes are the largest hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow.

Approximately 500cc of CSF made daily.

Endemic mycoses most commonly cause pulmonary infection following inhalation of infectious material.

Annual mortality of congestive heart failure 10-11%.

Nut consumption was inversely associated with total mortality in a dose-dependent fashion, and there is significant inverse associations with cardiovascular death, cancer deaths, diabetes, and deaths from respiratory disease.

Spina bifida is the most common of congenital anomalies of the CNS that is compatible with life.

Lactic acidosis is the most severe adverse affect of metformin and is associated with older age, cardiac disease, the compensated congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, chronic pulmonary disease, and hypoperfusion.

Untreated methanol poisonings associated with a 28% death rate.

Scabies associated with generalized itching, which is particularly more intense at night.

A 5.1 kg loss in body mass over a 10-year period decreases the odds of developing knee osteoarthritis by over 50%.

Chromosomal abnormalities occur in 1 in 160 live births.

The aim of cancer chemotherapy is to induce apoptosis by damaging DNA.

The median overall survival for women with metastatic breast cancer is about 24 months, ranging from 6.3 in the worst case scenario to 55.8 months in the best (Kiely BE et al).

5 year survival rates for metastatic breast cancer is @ 22%.

The spine is the most common site for bone metastases.

Coronary artery restenosis after stent placement may be as high as 50% in small coronary arteries suggesting an inverse relationship between vessel size and restenosis.

Parvovirus B19 is a single stranded DNA virus that causes erythema infectiosum (fifth disease).

Fetal deaths in blacks is approximately twice that of whites.

Annual mortality of congestive heart failure is 10-11%.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common focal peripheral neuropathy, secondary to compression of the median nerve at the wrist.

Coronary artery calcification - a marker of coronary atherosclerosis and can be used to predict cardiovascular disease events.

Cafe au lait spots are usually the earliest manifestations of neurofibromatosis.

Fondaparinux (Arixtra) a synthetic antithrombotic agent with specific anti-factor Xa activity.

Rasburicase can reduce serum uric acid levels within 4 hours.

Adult male circumcision reduces the acquisition of HIV by 50-60%.

Approx 85,000 synthetic chemicals in use in US &600 new chemicals approved each year.

Suicide rate is approximately 12 per hundred thousand per year.

Suicides by firearms accounts for more than 50% of such events.

Epidural steroid injection studies have revealed that at 24 hours postinjection, at 3-6 months, or 1 year later have no impact on day to day function, need for surgery, or long term control of pain.

Ovarian cysts although benign and often self-limited can cause significant pelvic pain and menstrual dysfunction and result in 200,000 hospitalizations annually in the U.S.